But without "have" or some other auxiliary, they're just part of a real verb. Hence the name participle.
But unlike gerunds, which function as nouns, the participle's function is basically that of an adjective. That is, they describe a noun.
Now, with gerunds and participles under your belt, you've entered the final stretch, with just one more to go. "Infinitives," as you probably know, are the base form of a verb plus "to." "To walk," "to be," to laugh," "to dance" ? these are all verbs in the infinitive form.